Showing posts from September, 2012

Graphene nanoribbon

Graphene Graphene has no gap between its valence and conduction bands which is essential for electronics applications because it allows a material to switch the flow of electrons on and off. But a band gap can be introduced into graphene by making extremely narrow ribbons. For example, dense arrays of 10 nm wide graphene nanoribbons can have a band gap of about 0.2 eV. Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs), are strips of graphene with ultra-thin width (<50 b="b"> Production By using small molecule precursors, scientists have found a way to precisely build graphene nanoribbons and make them in different shapes. Most routes to make nano-graphene are top-down - starting from a bulk material and breaking it up which has been tricky to make nano-sized ribbons of graphene with a defined structure of a size that would be useful in nanoelectronics. Width controlled GNRs can be produced via graphite nanotomy process shown by Berry group, where sharp diamond knife application on graphite p

Nanodiamonds for magnetic sensors

Nanodiamonds Nanodiamonds are diamond-structured particles measuring less than 10 nanometers in diameter which result as a residue from a TNT or Hexogen explosion in a contained space. Nanodiamonds have excellent mechanical and optical properties, high surface areas and tunable surface structures. Nanodiamonds have a wide range of potential applications in tribology, drug delivery, bio imaging and tissue engineering, for biomedical applications as they are also non-toxic, as protein mimics and also a filler material for nano composites. Nanodiamonds have perfect mechanical performance and widely used in various industries such as spaceflight, aero plane manufacture, information industry, precision machinery, optical instrument, automobile manufacture, chemical plastics and lubricant etc. Measuring magnetic fields Researchers at the University of California, Santa Barbara have developed an electron spin resonance technique involving nanodiamonds and lasers to measure local magnetic fiel

Nanocrystalline alloys

Nanocrystals for ferro electricity Ferro electricity The phenomenon of ferro electricity was discovered in 1921 using Rochelle salt. Barium titanate (BaTiO3) is a ferroelectric material used in making ferro electricity. There are more than 250 materials that exhibit ferroelectric properties, which include;     Lead titanate, Lead zirconate titanate and Lead lanthanum zirconate titanate. Ferroelectric materials have a permanent dipole moment, like their ferromagnetic counterparts. However, in ferroelectrics, the dipole moment is electric and not magnetic and so can be oriented using electric fields rather than magnetic ones to allow electrically digital information to be stored in ferroelectric thin films. Applications of ferroelectric materials Ferroelectric materials are used in making capacitors, non-volatile memory, piezoelectrics for ultrasound imaging and actuators, electro-optic materials for data storage applications, thermistors, switches known as transchargers or transpolarize